New Animal Law module on HeinOnline!

For those of you interested in or working on animal law issues, we have a great new resource for you: HeinOnline’s Animal Studies: Law, Welfare and Rights.

Animal Studies provides a one-stop shop for a variety of material on animal law. From the resource description:

With titles from the Animal Legal Defense Fund and Animal Welfare Institute, this collection aims to establish the foundational laws pertaining to animals and follow the evolution of these rights throughout the years. It includes philosophical books dating back to the 1800’s, videos, periodicals, brochures, and more.

A little more detail on what it contains:

  • Decades of publications from the ALDF and AWI, including video
  • A dozen periodicals dedicated to animal law
  • A large set of scholarly articles pulled from Hein’s extensive Law Journal Library as well as a bibliography of animal law books.
  • A bibliography of external links to research guides and centers/institutes focusing on animal law
  • CFR titles 9 and 50
  • Legislative histories and congressional hearings relating to laws concerning animals

Although some of this material was already available on Hein, much of it is new, and having it all compiled together should make it easier to use and find for those of you working in this area. We hope you find it useful!


Review: – A Discovery Engine for Government Info

“Liberty cannot be preserved without a general knowledge among the people, who have a right and a desire to know;” John Adams

Trying to research and review all of the information that the government releases on any particular topic can be overwhelming.  Add in trying to stay up to date on current happenings in the government generally, and you have a recipe for information overload.  I recently discovered a resource that wants to be the one stop for all unedited government media, news, statements, and information releases:  (Hollis number 013924920)


Ranging from the official releases of agencies to personal tweets of elected officials, strives to capture and make sense of the thousands of ways our government tries to communicate with us.  Their website says their mission is “to become the established site of record for unedited media, news and information from all official government sources, providing reliable and comprehensive value-added access to government communications.”

Content sources searched include information from more than 10,000 web locations:

  • Press Releases, News, Notices
  • Columns, Articles, Op-Eds, Blogs
  • Decisions, Opinions, Orders
  • Events, Media Advisories, Fact Sheets
  • Newsletters, Bulletins, Circulars
  • Alerts, Reports, Publications
  • Speeches, Statements, Remarks
  • Testimony Transcripts

Sometimes described as a “discovery engine,” the home page gives you a simple, Google-like search box where you can immediately search the government’s releases on any topic – search “VW,” for example, to find releases from agencies, members of Congress, or the administration about the recent emissions scandal or “Benghazi” to find out who was tweeting during Secretary Clinton’s hearings.  Researching the debate surrounding Planned Parenthood funding? will help you find key proponents and opponents – and what they are saying.

The advanced search page gives you more control of the results.  Simply tick off the boxes to limit your search to Congressional documents, for example, or exclude social media sources.  There is a way to limit your searches to statements and documents by party affiliation, gender, branch of government, and even those people running for president, a handy tool as we head into 2016!

While viewing results, suggests new searches and highlights key people, keywords, places and organizations that may be helpful to review.  Your search terms are also highlighted for easy scanning and context review.

One of the coolest features, IMHO, is the compare feature.  Any search you do is automatically displayed in a graph illustrating how two groups over time have released information on your topic.  The default is House Republicans vs. House Democrats, but options are available to change that and view how two individuals or other groups compare on the topic.

Take a look and explore how your representatives have responded to topics in the news, or research a government agency’s statements on current events in their area of authority.  If you get stuck or lost, has a handy “Ask a Librarian” link to one of their experts, and of course, you can always contact us here in the Harvard Law Library.



In Ruhleben Camp: 101 years of Ruhleben history

In Ruhleben Camp follows the production schedule of the magazine created by prisoners at Ruhleben, an internment camp for British civilians in Germany during WWI. Around the day that an issue of the magazine was released a hundred years ago, Marissa Grunes will post highlights from that number and tell part of its story.

Horsebox in a Ruhleben Internment Camp Barrack, pencil sketch. Maurice Ettinghausen Collection, Special & Historical Collections, HLSL. VIA record olvwork427944

Horsebox in a Ruhleben Internment Camp Barrack, pencil sketch. Maurice Ettinghausen Collection, Special & Historical Collections, HLSL. VIA record olvwork427944


Barrack model (three views). Maurice Ettinghausen Collection, Special & Historical Collections, HLSL. VIA record olvwork483923

Barrack model (three views). Maurice Ettinghausen Collection, Special & Historical Collections, HLSL. VIA record olvwork483923

Today I would like to pause our investigations into In Ruhleben Camp to commemorate the beginning of civilian internment at Ruhleben. Most of the 4,000-some British civilian internees arrived at the camp 101 years ago today, on November 6, 1914.

Four years and two days later, on November 8, 1918, the German guards signed a declaration of brotherhood with the internees at Ruhleben, and hoisted a red flag over the camp before releasing their prisoners (Stibbe, p. 16).

To honor the civilians who arrived at Ruhleben 101 years ago, I would like to share the Ruhleben Alphabet, a song written between Christmas 1914 and the opening of the playing field in March 1915 (as the internee J.D. Ketchum deduces) (Ketchum, p. 99). This span of time was a low point in the experience of internees, and although conditions eventually improved, and fatality at Ruhleben was low overall, these men had to muster great courage and fortitude to keep their spirits up. The strain and their plucky response both show in the Ruhleben chant: “Are we downhearted? No!”

A is for all of us locked up in here,
B is for the Bastards who won’t give us beer,
C is for the Canteen you never get near,
D for the dust-heaps—they don’t smell, no fear!
E for Exchange* that you hear of each day
F for the Football they won’t let us play,
G for “Gott mit uns,” at least so they say,
H for the Hope that we’ll get out some day.
I for the Ikeys, all Englishmen true,
J for the Jails that the British go to;
K for the Kaiser and all of his set,
L for the Licking we hope they will get,
M for the March, and it is a damned bore,
N for the News we don’t get of the war;
O for the Odours that come from the bogs*
P for the Pork in the soup, fit for hogs,
Q for the Queues in the mud and the cold,
R for the Rumours a hundred times told.
S for the Skilly they feed us again,*
T for the Trucks that we look for in vain;
U stands for Eunuchs we might as well be,
V the vexation on tasting the tea.
W the Wash in the morning so cold,
X for the Xmas well spent, we are told;
Y is an Englishman kept like a dog?
Z is the shape you assume on the bog.
This is the end of the Ruhleben song;
We’ll sing it in England before very long.

* Exchange refers to the hoped-for exchange of prisoners with Germany, which Britain decided was not in its interest, given that it had detained over five times as many enemy civilians as Germany. Around 20,000 people were held at Knockaloe in the Isle of Man alone.
* The bog refers to a latrine; the two latrines were on either side of the camp and were the only things in the camp named after Berlin geography: they were called Charlottenburg and Spandau.
* Skilly is a kind of thin soup or gruel. In late November of 1914, a “Skilly Riot” broke out when a group of sailors staged a spontaneous demonstration against the poor quality of the soup fed them by the corrupt kitchen manager. The authorities ended the riot “by the simple method of sounding “Fire,” and once we were in our places we were kept there” (a diary entry by one Henley, quoted in Ketchum, p. 19).

Bibliography & Further Reading

Ketchum, J. Davidson. Ruhleben: A Prison Camp Society. With a Foreword and Postscript by Robert B. MacLeod. Canada: University of Toronto Press, 1965. Foreword (Ithaca, NY, April 1964)

Stibbe, Matthew. British civilian internees in Germany. The Ruhleben camp, 1914-18. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 2008.

Marissa Grunes is a PhD candidate in English Literature at Harvard University, focusing on transatlantic literature of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Her dissertation project explores frontier architecture in 19th century poetry, fiction, and non-fiction of the United States.

Jump Start Your Research With Our New Tool

The Harvard Law School Library recently launched a new tool to streamline your research. You can now run a single search to find research guides, items from the library’s catalog, responses to frequently asked questions, and databases that are recommended by the HLSL research librarians. If your search doesn’t return any results, you will be offered the opportunity to contact a librarian to get further help with your research. You can see the new tool in action in the video below.

You can find a link to this new tool on the library’s homepage under Research A Topic. We hope this will help to make your research faster and smoother, but if you encounter any issues, please feel free to let us know!

Faculty Book Talk: Cass R. Sunstein’s “Choosing Not to Choose: Understanding the Value of Choice,” Wed., Nov. 18 at noon

The Harvard Law School Library staff invites you to attend a book talk and panel discussion in celebration of Cass R. Sunstein’s recently published book, Choosing Not to Choose:  Understanding the Value of Choice (Oxford University Press).

Wednesday, November 18, 2015 at 12:00 noon, with lunch
Harvard Law School Room WCC 2019 Milstein West A  (Directions)
1585 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge

sunstein -- choosing not to choose

Cass R. Sunstein is currently the Robert Walmsley University Professor at Harvard. From 2009 to 2012, he was Administrator of the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs. He is the founder and director of the Program on Behavioral Economics and Public Policy at Harvard Law School. Mr. Sunstein has testified before congressional committees on many subjects, and he has been involved in constitution-making and law reform activities in a number of nations.

Mr. Sunstein is author of many articles and books, including (2001), Risk and Reason (2002), Why Societies Need Dissent (2003), The Second Bill of Rights (2004), Laws of Fear: Beyond the Precautionary Principle (2005), Worst-Case Scenarios (2001), Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness (with Richard H. Thaler, 2008), Simpler: The Future of Government (2013) and most recently Why Nudge? (2014) and Conspiracy Theories and Other Dangerous Ideas (2014). He is now working on group decisionmaking and various projects on the idea of liberty


David Laibson



David Laibson, Robert I. Goldman Professor of Economics, Harvard University



Mark Tushnet




Mark Tushnet, William Nelson Cromwell Professor of Law



“Our ability to make choices is fundamental to our sense of ourselves as human beings, and essential to the political values of freedom-protecting nations. Whom we love; where we work; how we spend our time; what we buy; such choices define us in the eyes of ourselves and others, and much blood and ink has been spilt to establish and protect our rights to make them freely.

Choice can also be a burden. Our cognitive capacity to research and make the best decisions is limited, so every active choice comes at a cost. In modern life the requirement to make active choices can often be overwhelming. So, across broad areas of our lives, from health plans to energy suppliers, many of us choose not to choose. By following our default options, we save ourselves the costs of making active choices. By setting those options, governments and corporations dictate the outcomes for when we decide by default. This is among the most significant ways in which they effect social change, yet we are just beginning to understand the power and impact of default rules. Many central questions remain unanswered: When should governments set such defaults, and when should they insist on active choices? How should such defaults be made? What makes some defaults successful while others fail?

Cass R. Sunstein has long been at the forefront of developing public policy and regulation to use government power to encourage people to make better decisions. In this major new book, Choosing Not to Choose, he presents his most complete argument yet for how we should understand the value of choice, and when and how we should enable people to choose not to choose.

The onset of big data gives corporations and governments the power to make ever more sophisticated decisions on our behalf, defaulting us to buy the goods we predictably want, or vote for the parties and policies we predictably support. As consumers we are starting to embrace the benefits this can bring. But should we? What will be the long-term effects of limiting our active choices on our agency? And can such personalized defaults be imported from the marketplace to politics and the law? Confronting the challenging future of data-driven decision-making, Sunstein presents a manifesto for how personalized defaults should be used to enhance, rather than restrict, our freedom and well-being.” — Oxford University Press

Recent Reviews:  

“This book will profoundly alter the way you think about choices; the choices you make for yourself, the choices you make for others and the choices you allow others to make for you. With talent and ease Sunstein draws from politics, psychology, economics to help us understand ourselves and the world we live in, and how we may improve both. A delightful, thought provoking, read.” — Tali Sharot, Associate Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College, London

“From health care, education, and privacy, to travel, food, and finance, we face increasing arrays of choices. Occasionally, we have the knowledge and the bandwidth to choose well. Often, we do not. When are choices liberating, and bound to improve well-being? And when is it better not to choose? Should we worry about paternalism when others choose for us? And when we prefer not to choose, might it be paternalistic to require that we do so? Sunstein masterfully blends economic, legal, philosophical, and behavioral considerations to illuminate a topic of tremendous importance to policy making and to everyday life. Anyone who cares about the choices that they make should choose to read this book!” — Eldar Shafir, Professor of Psychology and Public Affairs, Princeton University

“There is no-one better placed than Cass Sunstein to make the case for Choosing Not to Choose. Drawing on the author’s own influential research and that of other experts, this book provides a deeply insightful exploration of both the value of choice and of not choosing. It is a must read for anyone interested in personal freedom and human wellbeing.” — Paul Dolan, Professor of Behavioral Science, The London School of Economics and Political Science

“In Choosing Not to Choose, Cass Sunstein provides the best analysis to date of the pros and cons of decision by default, making a strong case for personalized default rules in many domains. Readers will particularly appreciate the near-encyclopedic survey of empirical findings to help them identify the arenas of social life in which they will be better off or worse off by delegating decisions.” — Jon Elster, Robert K. Merton Professor of Social Science, Columbia University

“This monumental volume is the authoritative source on the subject. As anthropogenic climate change puts a deeper stamp on the planet, this book’s significance is certain to rise.” –– Jim Chen, Jurisdynamics Blog

In Ruhleben Camp: “Home Rule”

In Ruhleben Camp follows the production schedule of the magazine created by prisoners at Ruhleben, an internment camp for British civilians in Germany during WWI. Around the day that an issue of the magazine was released a hundred years ago, Marissa Grunes will post highlights from that number and tell part of its story. 

Front Cover. In Ruhleben Camp, No. 8, Sept 1915. Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 447

Cover. In Ruhleben Camp, No. 8, Sept 1915. Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 447

After the dramatic (in many senses) feuds of August and September, issue no. 8 of In Ruhleben Camp, released in late September, urged internees to band together as the iron hand of winter fell once more over the camp.

The Ruhleben Dramatic Society was still on strike, but by the end of September, dropping mercury outside and momentous internal changes made cooperation crucial for the camp’s welfare. The German military authorities had just granted “Home Rule,” solidifying the autonomy internees had accrued since the American Ambassador’s first visit in March of 1915. Internees would finally be “placed under the immediate control of our own officials” rather than “the Military Authorities,” as the magazine’s editors explain in a tone of cautious celebration. But for the camp to sustain its new “civil authority,” the editors warn, internees must embrace the ever-vilified Camp Captains as indeed “our own,” not allowing “differences of opinion” to paralyze daily administration (Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 457). (What this meant for the striking R.D.S. is unclear).

Who were the Captains and what magic potion would transform them to respected representatives, from their image as pampered pawns pandering to German officers? Stories about the rise of the Captains’ Committee are tinctured with bias, and in Ruhleben’s hothouse of rumors, the truth seems lost to misty legend. However, most tellers agree that the Captains were originally interpreters.

The historian Matthew Stibbe asserts that choosing barrack interpreters was among the first acts of Baron von Taube, the well-liked Lageroffizier (Camp Officer) and deputy to the camp commander. The interpreters doubled as captains, and the Baron hoped their bilingualism would win trust on both sides of the barbed wire (Stibbe, p. 58).

The former internee J.D. Ketchum gives a more sardonic account, recalling the chaos of the early days of internment. On November 8, 1914, two days after mass internment, Ketchum remembers the Baron addressing each barrack on “prison decorum.” When the Baron asked for interpreters, “from each stable-company someone who spoke German either volunteered or was pushed forward by others. This was the modest beginning of the Captains’ Committee, which became in a year the all-powerful government of the camp” (Ketchum, p. 25). As Ketchum tells it, the change was sudden and obscure: by November 13th, this hodgepodge of men was holding meetings, addressing needs in the camp, and assembling a civilian police force. They were now “mysteriously styled “captains”” (Ketchum, p. 26).

Where Ketchum sees the seeds of organization sown half-accidentally, an anonymous piece in issue no. 8 of the magazine, titled “How the Camp Is Run,” asserts that each barrack had “elected a Captain to act as…intermediary between the Barrack and the Military Authorities” (Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 490). The author goes on to defend the Captains, but many readers would have taken the word “elected” as more euphemistic than accurate.

When “Home Rule” was granted, current captains were not compelled to run for re-election unless barrack members presented alternative candidates. According to the magazine, none did. As a result, this quasi-autocratic system transformed overnight into representative democracy. While this passive acceptance of the Captains may have been “a surprise to many,” as the editors coyly remark, it appeared that “the Camp as a whole has expressed itself satisfied with that body.”

Thus, despite widening social and economic rifts in the camp—to which we will turn next—the editors insist that to maintain independence, the “necessity for the Camp to pull together is greater than ever” (Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 457).

Bibliography & Further Reading

Ketchum, J. Davidson. Ruhleben: A Prison Camp Society. With a Foreword and Postscript by Robert B. MacLeod. Canada: University of Toronto Press, 1965. Foreword (Ithaca, NY, April 1964)

Stibbe, Matthew. British civilian internees in Germany. The Ruhleben camp, 1914-18. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 2008.

Marissa Grunes is a PhD candidate in English Literature at Harvard University, focusing on transatlantic literature of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Her dissertation project explores frontier architecture in 19th century poetry, fiction, and non-fiction of the United States.

Faculty Book Talk: Mark Tushnet’s “Unstable Constitutionalism: Law and Politics in South Asia,” Mon., Nov. 16 at 4 pm

The Harvard Law School Library staff invites you to attend a book talk and panel discussion in celebration of Mark Tushnet’s recently published book with co-editor Madhav Khosla, Unstable Constitutionalism: Law and Politics in South Asia (Cambridge University Press).

Monday, November 16, 2015 at 4:00 pm
Harvard Law School Room WCC 2009
1585 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge  (Directions)

Refreshments will be served.  Co-sponsored with the South Asia Institute at Harvard University.

Tushnet -- Unstable Constitutionalism


Mark Tushnet is William Nelson Cromwell Professor of Law at Harvard Law School.  He graduated from Harvard College and Yale Law School and served as a law clerk to Justice Thurgood Marshall.  His research includes studies examining (skeptically) the practice of judicial review in the United States and around the world. He also writes in the area of legal and particularly constitutional history, with works on the development of civil rights law in the United States and (currently) a long-term project on the history of the Supreme Court in the 1930s.  His important works in the field of comparative constitutional law include Advanced Introduction to Comparative Constitutional Law (2014), The Routledge Handbook of Constitutional Law (co-edited, 2012) and the leading handbook, Weak Courts, Strong Rights: Judicial Review and Social Welfare Rights in Comparative Constitutional Law (2009).

Madhav Khosla is currently a PhD candidate at the Department of Government at Harvard University. He is the author of The Indian Constitution (2012) and is currently co-editing the Oxford Handbook of Indian Constitutional Law.


Rohit De -- Yale



Rohit De, Assistant Professor, Department of History, Yale University and Research Scholar in Law, Yale Law School


Nichcolas Robinson -- Harvard




Nicholas Robinson, Resident Fellow, Harvard Law School Center on the Legal Profession


“Although the field of constitutional law has become increasingly comparative in recent years, its geographic focus has remained limited. South Asia, despite being the site of the world’s largest democracy and a vibrant if turbulent constitutionalism, is one of the important neglected regions within the field. This book remedies this lack of attention by providing a detailed examination of constitutional law and practice in five South Asian countries: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bangladesh. Identifying a common theme of volatile change, it develops the concept of “unstable constitutionalism,” studying the sources of instability alongside reactions and responses to it. By highlighting unique theoretical and practical questions in an underrepresented region, Unstable Constitutionalism constitutes an important step toward truly global constitutional scholarship.” — Cambridge University Press

Free the Law – Overview

Project Summary

Problem: Our common law is not freely accessible online. This lack of access to the law impairs justice and equality and stifles innovation.

Goal: Transform the official print versions of all historical U.S. court decisions into digital files made freely accessible online. Encourage and assist federal and state courts in making all prospective court decisions freely accessible online.


  • All official reported decisions of the federal courts
  • All official reported decisions of the courts of every state
  • All territorial and pre-statehood decisions in HLSL’s collection
  • Estimated 43,000 volumes and 40MM pages


  1. Get the books from HLSL or Harvard Depository
  2. Scan the books using a high-speed scanner (~450K pages per week)
  3. Preserve the books in long-term underground storage
  4. Convert the scanned images into machine-readable text files
  5. Extract the individual cases into individual text files
  6. Redact headnotes and other editorial content
  7. Make the redacted images and text files freely accessible online

Projected Timeline:

  • 2015: Ramp up digitization production
  • 2016 (projected): digitize 25MM-30MM pp → publish CA, NY, MA, IL, TX, Federal
  • 2017 (projected): digitize remaining 10MM-15MM pp → publish everything

Harvard – Ravel Agreement – Key Terms


  • Ravel pays total costs of digitization

Digitization Responsibilities:

  • Harvard responsible for scanning books
  • Ravel (via vendor) responsible for converting scanned images to text files

Data Ownership and License:

  • Harvard owns the resulting data
  • Ravel gets a temporary exclusive license to commercially exploit redacted files
    • Maximum duration of exclusive commercial license is 8 years
    • Early expiration of exclusive commercial license if:
      • Ravel does not meet its obligations
      • a given jurisdiction publishes its future court decisions online in an acceptable format. Illinois and Arkansas have already satisfied this condition.

Data Access Rights and Obligations:

  • Harvard
    • Harvard may provide anyone with public access to the redacted files, subject to a bulk access limitation
    • Harvard may provide Harvard community members and outside research scholars with free bulk access to the entire dataset, provided they accept contractual prohibitions on redistribution
  • Ravel
    • Ravel will provide ongoing free public access to the redacted files, subject to a bulk access limitation
    • Ravel will provide developers ongoing API access to the redacted files
      • Free access for non-profit developers
      • Paid access for for-profit developers

Other Notable Terms:

  • Harvard has a 4% equity interest in Ravel, with any proceeds going to a sustainability fund to support the project.
  • Should Ravel stop offering public access, Harvard will be able to do so with the necessary Ravel software.


Research Week–part 2!

Don’t forget–this week is Research Week! The HLS librarians are offering a week of classes on different research topics. Click through for descriptions for this week’s offerings and to sign up–or feel free to just show up. All include snacks or lunch.

But this isn’t the only chance–we’ll be offering a second round of classes in November! Sign up for any and all sessions that interest you at the links below–or feel free to just show up. Again, we’ll be offering snacks or lunch at all sessions.

Criminal Justice Research
Tuesday, November 17, 2015, 4:00pm – 4:45pm
Location: Library conference room 524
Taught by: Michelle Pearse, Senior Research Librarian
Interested in Criminal Justice? Attend a training designed to help you find relevant books, articles, videos and other materials.
Register now

Finding Data
Wednesday, November 18, 2015, 4:00pm – 4:30pm
Location: Library conference room 524
Taught by: Michelle Pearse, Senior Research Librarian
Often find yourself looking for data but don’t know where to start? Join us for a review of strategies and some of the best free and Harvard-licensed sources to get you started.
Register now

International Human Rights Research
Thursday, November 19, 2015, 12:00pm – 12:45pm
Location: Library conference room 524
Taught by: Aslihan Bulut, Librarian For International, Foreign And Comparative Law
Starting your research on international human rights? Come and learn about the top resources to help you get started.
Register now

California Legal Research
Thursday, November 19, 2015, 4:00pm – 4:45pm
Location: Library conference room 524
Taught by: Jennifer Allison, Librarian For International, Foreign And Comparative Law
Headed west this summer or after graduation? Learn about California-specific legal research resources in Westlaw, Lexis, and beyond.
Register now

Faculty Book Talk: Dean Martha Minow and Alex Whiting: The First Global Prosecutor: Promise and Constraints, Wed., Nov. 4 at noon.

The Harvard Law School Library staff invites you to attend a book talk and panel discussion in celebration of Dean Martha Minow and Professor Alex Whiting’s new book, with co-editor C. Cora True-Frost, The First Global Prosecutor: Promise and Constraints (University of Michigan Press).

Wednesday, November 4, 2015 at 12:00 noon.
Harvard Law School Room WCC Milstein East B/C (Directions)
Sponsored by the Harvard Law School Library.
Lunch will be served.

final poster minow whiting sm for blog

Martha Minow, the Morgan and Helen Chu Dean and Professor of Law, has taught at Harvard Law School since 1981, where her courses include civil procedure, constitutional law, family law, international criminal justice, jurisprudence, law and education, nonprofit organizations, and the public law workshop. An expert in human rights and advocacy for members of racial and religious minorities and for women, children, and persons with disabilities, she also writes and teaches about privatization, military justice, and ethnic and religious conflict.

Professor True-Frost is Assistant Professor of Law at Syracuse University College of Law. She joins SUCOL from Harvard Law School, where she was a Climenko Fellow. Her scholarship draws from the areas of international relations theory, administrative law, and public international law. She teaches classes in international and domestic criminal law, international human rights law, and regulatory law and policy.

Professor True-Frost earned an LL.M. from Harvard Law School and a J.D./M.P.A. magna cum laude as one of two Law Fellows at SUCOL and the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs. She has worked in East Timor and Sierra Leone and led the NGO Working Group on Women, Peace and Security at UN headquarters. She was also a litigation associate at Cravath, Swaine and Moore LLP. Prior to law school, she taught middle school in Baltimore and Harlem with the Teach for America program.

Alex Whiting is a Professor of Practice at Harvard Law School where he teaches, writes and consults on domestic and international criminal prosecution issues. From 2010 until 2013, he was in the Office of the Prosecutor at the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague where he served first as the Investigations Coordinator, overseeing all of the investigations in the office, and then as Prosecutions Coordinator, overseeing all of the office’s ongoing prosecutions. Before going to the ICC, Whiting taught for more than three years as an Assistant Clinical Professor of Law at Harvard Law School, again with a focus on prosecution subjects. From 2002-2007, he was a Trial Attorney and then a Senior Trial Attorney with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague. He was lead prosecution counsel in Prosecutor v. Fatmir Limaj, Isak Musliu, and Haradin Bala; Prosecutor v. Milan Martic; and Prosecutor v. Dragomir Miloševic. Before going to the ICTY, he was a U.S. federal prosecutor for ten years, first with the Criminal Section of the Civil Rights Division in Washington, D.C., and then with the U.S. Attorney’s Office in Boston where he focused on organized crime and corruption cases. Whiting attended Yale College and Yale Law School, and clerked for Judge Eugene H. Nickerson of the Eastern District of New York. His publications include Dynamic Investigative Practice at the International Criminal Court, 76 Law and Contemporary Problems 163 (2014), International Criminal Law: Cases and Commentary (2011), co-authored with Antonio Cassese and two other authors, and In International Criminal Prosecutions, Justice Delayed Can Be Justice Delivered, 50 Harv. Int’l L. J. 323 (2009). ”

About The First Global Prosecutor: Promise and Constraints

“The establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC) gave rise to the first permanent Office of the Prosecutor (OTP), with independent powers of investigation and prosecution. Elected in 2003 for a nine-year term as the ICC’s first Prosecutor, Luis Moreno Ocampo established policies and practices for when and how to investigate, when to pursue prosecution, and how to obtain the cooperation of sovereign nations. He laid a foundation for the OTP’s involvement with the United Nations Security Council, state parties, nongovernmental organizations, victims, the accused, witnesses, and the media.

This volume of essays presents the first sustained examination of this unique office and offers a rare look into international justice. The contributors, ranging from legal scholars to practitioners of international law, explore the spectrum of options available to the OTP, the particular choices Moreno Ocampo made, and issues ripe for consideration as his successor, Fatou B. Bensouda, assumes her duties. The beginning of Bensouda’s term thus offers the perfect opportunity to examine the first Prosecutor’s singular efforts to strengthen international justice, in all its facets.” — University of Michigan Press

Recent Reviews:

“This book . . . offers a unique perspective on one of the most innovative international endeavors to end impunity for and prevent massive atrocities.”
—  Luis Moreno Ocampo (from the Prologue)

“The First Global Prosecutor admirably and distinctively fills a gap in the existing literature on the International Criminal Court. In bringing together essays by both leading scholars and prominent jurists in the field, Minow delivers a volume that is compendious in scope, rich with insight, and judicious in its conclusions. At once timely and important, The First Global Prosecutor offers a vital contribution to ongoing debates about the structure, function and practice of the world’s first truly global prosecutor.”
—  Lawrence Douglas, Amherst College

“There are only few works that deal in-depth with the legacy of the first years of the ICC. This volume combines ‘insider’ and ‘external’ perspectives on the first years of the Office of the Prosecutor. It captures major themes that have become relevant during Moreno Ocampo’s tenure and helps us understand the ‘light’ and ‘shadow’ of international criminal justice in situations of conflict.”
—  Carsten Stahn, Leiden University