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Lawrence Lessig, The First Amendment Does Not Protect Replicants, in Social Media, Freedom of Speech, and the Future of our Democracy 273 (Lee C. Bollinger & Geoffrey R. Stone, eds., 2022).

Abstract: As the semantic capability of computer systems increases, the law should resolve clearly whether the First Amendment protects machine speech. This essay argues it should not be read to reach sufficiently sophisticated — "replicant" — speech.