In Ruhleben Camp: weathering class divisions part 2 (The Camp School)

In Ruhleben Camp follows the production schedule of the magazine created by prisoners at Ruhleben, an internment camp for British civilians in Germany during WWI. Around the day that an issue of the magazine was released a hundred years ago, Marissa Grunes will post highlights from that number and tell part of its story.

As the winter of 1915 swept across Germany, warm clothing and rich food became increasingly urgent matters in Ruhleben Camp. These were especially elusive for impoverished prisoners relying on the British government’s Relief Fund. The greatest source of public contention, however, was access to indoor space.

Internees were guaranteed shelter in horse stalls or lofts, but the men also needed an escape from these cold, cramped quarters. Meanwhile, activities that had flourished during the summer, from classes to cricket matches, either had to migrate indoors or be suspended for the winter. Conflicts over communal spaces became more heated, and were frequently aired in the September and October issues of the magazine.

Ruhleben 1918, General View, East End. VIA record number olvwork427605

Ruhleben 1918, General View, East End. VIA record number olvwork427605

By now, three halls were open under the grandstand seats (visible above), but these couldn’t begin to accommodate the public life of the racetrack’s 4,000-some occupants. The halls were regularly booked for ticketed events, which excluded the poorest Ruhlebenites and sparked debates over the Camp’s financial organization. With the Ruhleben Dramatic Society on strike in September, one hall was freed for casual use (for instance, as a smoking room), prompting a wag to quip that a “rabble fills the hall” where Thespis once reigned (Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 364). Nonetheless, many Ruhleben groups struggled to find indoor venues. Of these, the one that captured the magazine’s attention was the Camp School.

Issues no. 8 (September) and no. 9 (October) of In Ruhleben Camp both open with an appeal from the Camp School for funds to secure “Partitioning, Books & Apparatus” (Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 448). As if in sympathetic response, John C. Masterman’s copy of issue no. 8 (held in HLSL) includes a prospectus for the School’s Winter Session folded into its opening pages. This prospectus explains that the “advent of warm weather” had made the School possible, but since classes and lectures required partitioned spaces, “the failure to obtain adequate accommodation all but extinguished its life during the Winter and early Spring.” The author admonishes anyone who “values Culture and Education” to observe that internees spent as much time studying as they “passed in the Entertainments Hall: and yet the School has been treated with comparative neglect” (Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 450).

Within issue no. 8 of the magazine, the editors champion the School as “of far more use than even the Football Clubs,” calling it “the most popular and, we venture to say, the most useful institution in the Camp” (Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 462). They also call on the Education Committee to support the more informal “Circles,” organized around shared intellectual pursuits, by helping them “procure a suitable room…during the winter sessions” (Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 500).

But the editors go further, amplifying the School’s distress signals into a challenge against wealthy internees who had cordoned off exclusive “clubhouses.” In particular, they remind the Summer House Club of its promise to share its boxes with the School. The Summer House’s cosmetic philanthropy had been used to “justify the existence of such a Club in a British Concentration Camp,” the editors recall, yet card-playing Club members regularly chase out students with “scant ceremony” (Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 462).

Come October, the editors had more to lament: space constraints had forced John C. Masterman (the Camp’s “best all-around man” (Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 479)) to call off his popular lectures. “That lack of space should preclude us from hearing another course from him during the winter would seem a severe reflection on the organising ability of the Camp as a whole,” the editors grimly scold their readership. “The size of his audience has been no less extraordinary than the variety of its composition,” discrediting the notion that the “student section” of the population represents only “one class” of internees (Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 514).

As winter threatened to cement class barriers, it seemed that educational institutions—less lucrative than theatrical or musical entertainment—would be edged out. But the School was not so easily beaten. Not only did it carry on, but over the four next three years it would establish a relationship with the University of Berlin, building a diplomatic bridge that eventually extended across the Channel, where the University of Leeds took on responsibility for supporting the education of German civilians interned on the Isle of Man.

The “University of Ruhleben” became a great source of pride, and its graduates sat for official degree and certificate examinations from the University of London, the London Chamber of Commerce, and the Royal Society of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce—all within the (dis)comfort of Ruhleben Camp.* The era of correspondence courses had begun.

* See Stibbe, pp. 3, 145-6.

Bibliography & Further Reading

Stibbe, Matthew. British civilian internees in Germany. The Ruhleben camp, 1914-18. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 2008.

Marissa Grunes is a PhD candidate in English Literature at Harvard University, focusing on transatlantic literature of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Her dissertation project explores frontier architecture in 19th century poetry, fiction, and non-fiction of the United States.

Executive Director of the Harvard Law School Library

As you may know, Suzanne Wones, Harvard Law School Library’s Executive Director, has accepted a new position as the Director of Library Digital Strategies and Innovations for the Harvard Library. We are sad to see her go, but excited for her as well and wish her all the best!

With her imminent departure, we are looking for an Executive Director for HLSL and we encourage qualified candidates to consider applying. The successful candidate will be responsible for working closely with the Vice Dean of Library and Information Resources to set service, collection, and budgetary priorities for the library. The Executive Director also directs all of the library’s day-to-day operations, including overseeing departments focused on research services, faculty support, academic technology, collection development, and empirical services. In partnership with the Vice Dean of Library and Information Resources and the Director of the Library Innovation Lab, this individual will also set the agenda for the new design and development projects undertaken by the Library Innovation Lab. This is an exciting position that is perfect for someone who is interested in working on a wide range of projects that have an impact on the HLS faculty, students, and staff as well as the world beyond our campus.

If you think that you would be a strong candidate for this position, you can read more about it in the official job description and apply online. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact us for further information.

852 RARE: Collection Mysteries – History Sleuths Wanted

Over the years, a few of our 852 RARE posts have focused on parts of the collection that present unanswered questions such as the identity of an individual or date and creator of an image. In 2008, we wrote about a  carte de visite of an unidentified African American man in the Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. visual materials collection. Then in 2012 we posted a photograph of HLS graduate students that included an unidentified child in the picture, whom we dubbed “the littlest graduate.” Most recently, we wondered about the origins and purpose of a 1977 student group titled “The Fainwood.”

Historical & Special Collections (HSC) is not alone when it comes to mysteries in its collection. The Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division (P & P) has a blog titled “Picture This.” In a number of posts they have highlighted mystery photographs that have been placed on the Library of Congress Flickr account along with a call to help identify them. Images have ranged from buildings, to gadgets, to travel views. Thanks to the help of Flickr users they were able to identify and more accurately describe quite a few of the formerly unidentified images.

It takes practice and skill to dissect an image and make meaning from it. This skill is commonly referred to as visual literacy. The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) defines visual literacy as: “a set of abilities that enables an individual to effectively find, interpret, evaluate, use, and create images and visual media.” You can see visual literacy in action in the comments accompanying the P & P images in Flickr. Some of the observations and types of sources people drew upon are fascinating.

Sadly, we have not solved any of our previously chronicled mysteries and new mysteries present themselves all the time. As you can see below, we have a number of unidentified individuals in our collection of cabinet cards and cartes de visite.

Undated Carte de Visite photograph of a man in wig and gown, head and shoulder view. Photographer Fradelle & Marshall, London, England

Unidentified English Jurist, recto
Carte de Visite 2-102
HOLLIS 012545010

Back of carte de visite of unidentified English jurist. Photographers name printed: Fradelle & Marshall, London, England. Inscription: Unknown English Jurist, (junior barrister JHB)

Unidentified English Jurist, verso
Carte de Visite 2-102
HOLLIS 012545010













Cabint card of Unidentified English Jurist. Head and shoulder view, turned and facing right in wig and robes. Sticker in upper right corner that says "Y"

Unidentified English Jurist “Y”
Cabinet Card, Box 9
HOLLIS 012545010

Cabinet card of an Unidentified English Jurist, three quarter length view in wig and robes, sitting and turned and facing right

Unidentified English Jurist
Cabinet Card, Box 9
HOLLIS 012545010













This is your chance to help us and have some fun in the process. Tap into your inner Sherlock Holmes and put your skills of analysis to work! Send your discoveries or information that could aid in identification to

For those interested in learning more about visual literacy, here are some resources:

Every Photo is a Story: Researching Photographs–Video Series and Exercises, Library of Congress

Visual Literacy Resources, Toledo Art Museum

International Visual Literacy Association

Visual Thinking Strategies

Faculty Book Talk: Sanford Levinson’s An Argument Open to All: Reading “The Federalist” in the 21st Century, Wed., Dec. 2, at noon

The Harvard Law School Library staff invite you to attend a book talk and panel discussion in celebration of Visiting Professor Sanford Levinson’s recently published book,  An Argument Open to All: Reading “The Federalist” in the 21st Century (Yale U.  Press).

Wednesday, December 2, 2015 at noon.
Harvard Law School Room WCC 2019 Milstein East B/C  (Directions)
1585 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge

An Argument Open to All


Sanford Levinson, who holds the W. St. John Garwood and W. St. John Garwood, Jr. Centennial Chair in Law, joined the University of Texas Law School in 1980. Previously a member of the Department of Politics at Princeton University, he is also a Professor in the Department of Government at the University of Texas. The author of over 350 articles and book reviews in professional and popular journals–and a regular contributor to the popular blog Balkinization–Levinson is also the author of four books: Constitutional Faith (1988, winner of the Scribes Award); Written in Stone: Public Monuments in Changing Societies (1998); Wrestling With Diversity (2003); and, most recently, Our Undemocratic Constitution: Where the Constitution Goes Wrong (and How We the People Can Correct It)(2006); and, most recently, Framed: America’s 51 Constitutions and the Crisis of Governance (2012). Edited or co-edited books include a leading constitutional law casebook, Processes of Constitutional Decisionmaking (5th ed. 2006, with Paul Brest, Jack Balkin, Akhil Amar, and Reva Siegel); Reading Law and Literature: A Hermeneutic Reader (1988, with Steven Mallioux); Responding to Imperfection: The Theory and Practice of Constitutional Amendment (1995); Constitutional Stupidities, Constitutional Tragedies (1998, with William Eskridge); Legal Canons (2000, with Jack Balkin); The Louisiana Purchase and American Expansion (2005, with Batholomew Sparrow); and Torture: A Collection (2004, revised paperback edition, 2006), which includes reflections on the morality, law, and politics of torture from a variety of disciplinary perspectives. He received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Law and Courts Section of the American Political Science Association in 2010. He has been a visiting faculty member of the Boston University, Georgetown, Harvard, New York University, and Yale law schools in the United States and has taught abroad in programs of law in London; Paris; Jerusalem; Auckland, New Zealand; and Melbourne, Australia.


Jill Lepore



Jill Lepore, David Woods Kemper ’41 Professor of American History and Harvard College Professor


Eric Nelson



Eric Nelson, Robert M. Beren Professor of Government, Harvard University



Adrian Vermeule



Adrian Vermeule, John H. Watson, Jr. Professor of Law, Harvard Law School



More about An Argument Open to All:

“In An Argument Open to All, renowned legal scholar Sanford Levinson takes a novel approach to what is perhaps America’s most famous political tract.  Rather than concern himself with the authors as historical figures, or how The Federalist helps us understand the original intent of the framers of the Constitution, Levinson examines each essay for the political wisdom it can offer us today. In eighty-five short essays, each keyed to a different essay in The Federalist, he considers such questions as whether present generations can rethink their constitutional arrangements; how much effort we should exert to preserve America’s traditional culture; and whether The Federalist’s arguments even suggest the desirability of world government.” — Yale U. Press

“Sanford Levinson has one of the most original minds in the American legal community, and it is on full display in this wonderful new book.”—  Alan Wolfe, Boston College

“Levinson’s brilliant short essays do much more than bring extraordinary insight to one of our most important Founding documents. They show how the questions posed by The Federalist are timeless, global and as compelling today as they were when written.  Levinson gives more relevance to The Federalist than it has had since 1788.   Fascinating and important.”—  Elliot Gerson, The Aspen Institute

“In his new examination of the Federalist Papers, Levinson lays out a powerful case for believing that the Founders, far from thinking government should be constrained, were focused instead on how to give it sufficient power to function effectively. Agree with him or not, Levinson’s is a brilliant and well-constructed brief for rethinking what our Founders were trying to say.”—  Former Congressman Mickey Edwards, author of “The Parties versus the People: How to Turn Republicans and Democrats into Americans”

Scanning Nuremberg: the war in southeastern Europe

Post by Matt Seccombe, November 17, 2015

Scanning Nuremberg shares the observations and insights of Matt Seccombe, Nuremberg Trials Project Metadata Manager/Document Analyst, as he analyzes documents for digitization as part of the HLS Library’s Nuremberg Trials Project website

In October I worked through the second half of the records of the German war in Yugoslavia, covering the years 1943-44. This amounted to 214 documents analyzed, with 1256 pages of material. The basic story remained the same as for the early war—the capture and killing of hostages as a deterrent and punishment for guerrilla attacks, hence the name The Hostage Case—but some interesting strategic and tactical shifts occurred.

In mid-1943 the focus of the war in southeastern Europe shifted from Serbia to the west coast of Yugoslavia, especially following the collapse of the fascist regime in Italy. The German military expected an Anglo-American invasion of Croatia and an effort to drive from there northward into Austria and Germany. The English had been active enough in the area, sending agents and supplies to help the partisans, to make the scenario plausible. The German response was as severe as it had been in Serbia, aggravated by a growing sense of desperation.

Basic orders: As an SS Division operated in Croatia, its orders included “the immediate arrest of hostages. The slightest resistance is to be broken with ruthless terror.” In February 1944 General Kuebler, citing the Germans’ numerical disadvantage against the partisans, was even more emphatic: “Terror against terror. An eye for an eye, A tooth for a tooth!”

Revised orders: Early in the war partisan fighters were considered criminals rather than soldiers, so captured partisans were shot rather than treated as POWs. In July 1943 Hitler revised the policy and captured partisans were kept alive and shipped to Germany for labor, particularly in the coal mines. Germany was running desperately short of labor at that point, which probably had more to do with the changed policy than respect for the laws of war. By the end of the war in the region, in 1944, the German army did show some respect for their adversaries, ironically because of the assistance the partisans were then receiving from the Allies (Anglo-American and Soviet), which included uniforms as well as weapons. Since the partisans now acted like an army and looked like an army, the German military recognized them as such—including the application of international laws regarding the treatment of POWs.

The ethnic problem(s): With the German army drained to the Russian front, the army in the southeast relied partly on other forces, including groups of anti-Soviet Russians (referred to as Cossacks in some records) and Bulgarians. The Russian units were sometimes investigated by the German commanders for being overly literal about the “ruthless terror” strategy against civilians. The use of Bulgarian troops in Serbia, a German officer noted, raised the problem that most Serbs scorned Bulgarians as inferior, while the Bulgarians had “an unbridgeable hate against everything of Serbian blood.”

More about the Nuremberg Trials Project:

The Harvard Law School Library holds approximately one million pages of documents relating to the trial of military and political leaders of Nazi Germany before the International Military Tribunal (IMT) and to the twelve trials of other accused war criminals before the United States Nuremberg Military Tribunals (NMT). We have already digitized NMT 1 (U.S.A. v. Karl Brandt et al.), NMT 2 (U.S.A. v. Erhard Milch), and NMT 4 (U.S.A. v. Pohl et al.), and we’re in the process of digitizing our remaining holdings. We expect to have NMT 3 (The Judges’ Trial) completed and available to the public by the summer of 2015.

Although the digitization of the remaining trials will also be complete by the end of this year, they will require analysis and tagging work before they can be released to the public.  We hope to complete this work as soon as possible based upon available funding. For more information about this project, please contact Kim Dulin.

Special Event: Spotlight at Harvard Law School

The HLS Library and Dean of Students Office invite you to attend a panel discussion about the new film Spotlight, which tells the story of how the Boston Globe uncovered the child molestation scandal and cover-up in the local Catholic Archdiocese.

See the movie in theaters, then join us for a lively discussion featuring the screenwriter, a real life attorney featured in the film, and HLS faculty.

Monday, November 23, 7:30pm
WCC 2019 (Milstein West A/B) (directions)
Harvard Law School
1585 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge


Josh Singer, screenwriter and moderator

Mitchell Garabedian, Law Offices of Mitchell Garabedian

Lawrence Lessig, Roy L. Furman Professor of Law, Harvard Law School

Jeannie Suk, Professor of Law, Harvard Law School

Jonathan Zittrain, George Bemis Professor of International Law, Harvard Law School

Open to the Harvard Law School community; Harvard ID is required for admission.

spotlight blog

If you or an event participant requires disability-related accommodations, please contact Accessibility Services in the Dean of Students Office, WCC 3039, at, or 617-495-1880 in advance of the event.

Research Week

Next week your HLS librarians are offering a second round of research classes on a variety of topics. Come to one or all!

Criminal Justice Research
Tuesday, November 17, 2015, 4:00pm – 4:45pm
Location: Library conference room 524
Taught by: Michelle Pearse, Senior Research Librarian
Interested in Criminal Justice? Attend a training designed to help you find relevant books, articles, videos and other materials.
Register now

Finding Data
Wednesday, November 18, 2015, 4:00pm – 4:30pm
Location: Library conference room 524
Taught by: Michelle Pearse, Senior Research Librarian
Often find yourself looking for data but don’t know where to start? Join us for a review of strategies and some of the best free and Harvard-licensed sources to get you started.
Register now

International Human Rights Research
Thursday, November 19, 2015, 12:00pm – 12:45pm
Location: Library conference room 524
Taught by: Aslihan Bulut, Librarian For International, Foreign And Comparative Law
Starting your research on international human rights? Come and learn about the top resources to help you get started.
Register now

California Legal Research
Thursday, November 19, 2015, 4:00pm – 4:45pm
Location: Library conference room 524
Taught by: Jennifer Allison, Librarian For International, Foreign And Comparative Law
Headed west this summer or after graduation? Learn about California-specific legal research resources in Westlaw, Lexis, and beyond.
Register now

Very Special Library Event: Cass Sunstein discusses “The World According to Star Wars,” Tue., Dec. 1 at 12:00 noon.

Whether you are pro-Republic or pro-Empire, the Harvard Law School Library staff invite you to attend a discussion by  Professor Cass Sunstein on his forthcoming book, The World According to Star Wars (Harper Collins, 2016).

Tuesday, December 1 at 12:00 noon
Harvard Law School WCC Room 2019 (Milstein West A/B)
1585 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge  (Directions)

We will be giving away five free tickets to a 3-D screening on the opening weekend of Star Wars VII: The Force Awakens, December 19.
Festive attire and costumes are welcome.  May the Force be with you!

Star Wars Sunstein poster

In Ruhleben Camp: weathering class divisions in winter

In Ruhleben Camp follows the production schedule of the magazine created by prisoners at Ruhleben, an internment camp for British civilians in Germany during WWI. Around the day that an issue of the magazine was released a hundred years ago, Marissa Grunes will post highlights from that number and tell part of its story.

If Home Rule meant a more democratic camp, as suggested previously, the coming of winter brought stark reminders of persistent inequality.

Internment had caught British subjects unaware, from the cosmopolitan world-traveler to the sailors detained in Hamburg harbor. As a result, the camp’s diverse population cut across economic and social classes. Although a handful of the most prominent internees, such as Sir Timothy Eden (brother to the future Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden) secured early release in individual exchanges with German prisoners, only eleven such exchanges occurred before 1916, when the head of the newly established Prisoner of War Department, Lord Newton, rejected what he called this “old-fashioned, aristocratic” approach (Stibbe, p. 126).

Many wealthy and well-connected internees thus remained all four years, and soon found ways to distinguish themselves from the hoi polloi.

One way to assert class affiliation was sartorial. Once parcel deliveries were less restricted after March 1915, internees could write home for clothing, allowing “the school tie, the blazer, the club badge” to stage a comeback, according to former internee Frank Stockall (qtd. in Stibbe, p. 95). Internees could also spruce up using amenities within the camp. J.D. Ketchum remembers shoe-shining as the first “service” offered in Ruhleben. In 1914 “no Englishman above the working class ever cleaned his own shoes,” Ketchum reminds us, and since the job required little capital outlay, shoeblacks initially prospered—until supply overwhelmed demand (Ketchum, p. 27 n. 1).

Advertisement. In Ruhleben Camp, No. 8, Sept 1915. Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 503

Advertisement. In Ruhleben Camp, No. 8, Sept 1915. Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 503.

Along with the rash of shoeblacks came other services considered de rigeur for keeping up appearances. From the magazine’s second issue onward, its back pages featured adjacent, full-page advertisements for the tailor Steinbock and the hairdresser George Teger.

Tailoring is a valuable service, especially in winter, but Steinbock’s autumn advertisement doesn’t mention fit or warmth. Instead, he makes a posh virtue of necessity, announcing a “NEW FASHION: Special Winter Overcoat! NOW ON VIEW!” (Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 503), next to a drawing of two well-heeled men modeling full-length coats, positioned as if passing each other in the city. By evoking sartorial standards at Home, Steinbock appeals to fantasies of freedom, especially among a clientele pining for the bustling commerce of London, where the cut of a coat, the pleat in a pinstriped trouser, the filigree on a cane, or the whiff of a cigar spoke volumes to the knowing observer.

Advertisement. In Ruhleben Camp, No. 8, Sept 1915. Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 504

Advertisement. In Ruhleben Camp, No. 8, Sept 1915. Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 504


This pair of advertisements from Steinbock and Teger (“Professional Hair dresser” offering a “First-class Pedicure”) make the back pages a one-stop shop for upper-class grooming (Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 504). Whether these entrepreneurs considered their services complementary, or the editors bundled them together, both businesses were sufficiently well-funded in 1915 to take out at least one full-page ad each month.

If the editors were responsible for the pairing, they may have had a chuckle at the vision of an internee decked out cap-a-pie in Ruhleben finery. Certainly readers of the September issue had occasion to shake their heads at hairdressers and their clients: the short story “Johnny,” published pseudonymously, offers a classic Ruhleben parable starring a hairdresser.

The story begins with the narrator waiting to collect a parcel. Near him in the queue, he notices a man he dubs “Johnny.” “He was a nut,” the narrator gushes, admiring the man’s style: “hair nicely oiled and beautifully parted” with “plump rosy cheeks [that] vaguely reminded one of a “Frivolity” beauty” (the cross-dressing men who were prima donnas of the popular stage in Ruhleben). With a mischievous twinkle, the narrator continues, “Of course his suit was of a most nutty cut. It had been made in Ruhleben, therefore it was really exquisite” (Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 469).

Eager to hear Johnny’s “version of the Ruhleben “if,”” the narrator timidly addresses him, and is gratified to learn that if Johnny’s “Pater” hadn’t sent him to be educated in Germany, he would “be having an extraordinarily charming life riding round our park at home with my old school chums, y’know” (Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 470).

With his professionally-styled hair and his suit native to Ruhleben tailor shops, Johnny captivates the narrator—who, sadly, is doomed to lose his new upper-crust friend before he even reaches the parcel window. Seeing “Snippy” coming, Johnny scampers aristocratically out of the queue, leaving the narrator quizzical. “He’s a barber’s assistant,” Snippy reveals. “Used to work in a saloon I went to near the Strand” (Masterman Coll., Box 2 Seq. 472).

This satirical parable takes swipes at pretensions across the board: peacock’s feathers are too easily borrowed from a superficial elite, and command extravagant deference from gulls like the narrator, but woe betide those who put on airs, which the least brush with outside reality can dispel.

Yet it remains true that the blank Ruhleben slate allowed internees to reinvent themselves, to play the part they wanted. In this “little secret history” we see that some men—like those “Frivolity” beauties who found greater freedom in Ruhleben than outside*—could use this strange, raw society to move fluidly across the rigid divisions and hierarchies of post-Victorian Britain.

* See Alon Rachamimov’s insightful essay on cross-dressing in POW camps, cited below.

Bibliography & Further Reading

Ketchum, J. Davidson. Ruhleben: A Prison Camp Society. With a Foreword and Postscript by Robert B. MacLeod. Canada: University of Toronto Press, 1965. Foreword (Ithaca, NY, April 1964)

Rachamimov, Alon. “The disruptive comforts of drag: (Trans) gender performances among prisoners of war in Russia, 1914–1920.” The American Historical Review 111.2 (2006): 362-382.

Stibbe, Matthew. British civilian internees in Germany. The Ruhleben camp, 1914-18. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 2008.

Marissa Grunes is a PhD candidate in English Literature at Harvard University, focusing on transatlantic literature of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Her dissertation project explores frontier architecture in 19th century poetry, fiction, and non-fiction of the United States.

Special Event: Jonathan Zittrain Interviews Lawrence Lessig: “What I Learned Running for President:  The Ethics of Citizenship,” Mon., Nov. 23rd at 5 pm

The Harvard Law School Library staff invite you to attend an interview of Professor Lawrence Lessig by Professor Jonathan Zittrain entitled, What I Learned Running for President:  The Ethics of Citizenship.  Professor Lessig recently ended his presidential campaign with the release of a YouTube video with the title,  The Democrats have changed the rules This special event also celebrates the 2016 edition of Professor Lessig’s book titled Republic Lost: The Corruption of Equality and the Steps to End It  (Oct. 2015, Grand Central Publishing, Hachette Book Group).

Monday, November 23, 2015 at 5:00 pm followed by a 6:00 pm reception 

Harvard Law School Ames Courtroom, Austin Hall (Directions)

1585 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge

Co-sponsored by the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics, Harvard University

Lessig poster


Lawrence LessigLawrence Lessig is the Roy L. Furman Professor of Law at Harvard Law School, and was formerly the Director of the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics at Harvard University. Prior to rejoining the Harvard faculty, Lessig was a professor at Stanford Law School, where he founded the school’s Center for Internet and Society, and at the University of Chicago. He clerked for Judge Richard Posner on the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals and Justice Antonin Scalia on the United States Supreme Court. Lessig serves on the Board of Creative Commons, MAPLight, Brave New Film Foundation, The American Academy, Berlin, AXA Research Fund and, and is on the advisory board of the Sunlight Foundation. He is a Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Association, and has received numerous awards, including the Free Software Foundation’s Freedom Award, Fastcase 50 Award and being named one of Scientific American’s Top 50 Visionaries. Lessig holds a BA in economics and a BS in management from the University of Pennsylvania, an MA in philosophy from Cambridge, and a JD from Yale.

Jonathan ZittrainJonathan Zittrain is the George Bemis Professor of International Law at Harvard Law School and the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, Professor of Computer Science at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Director of the Harvard Law School Library, and Faculty Director of the Berkman Center for Internet & Society.  His research interests include battles for control of digital property and content, cryptography, electronic privacy, the roles of intermediaries within Internet architecture, human computing, and the useful and unobtrusive deployment of technology in education.

He is a member of the Board of Directors of the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Board of Advisors for Scientific American.  He has served as a Trustee of the Internet Society, and as a Forum Fellow of the World Economic Forum, which named him a Young Global Leader, and as Distinguished Scholar-in-Residence at the Federal Communications Commission, where he previously chaired the Open Internet Advisory Committee. His book The Future of the Internet — And How to Stop It is available from Yale University Press and Penguin UK — and under a Creative Commons license.

More about Republic Lost: The Corruption of Equality and the Steps to End It

“In an era when special interests funnel huge amounts of money into our government-driven by shifts in campaign-finance rules and brought to new levels by the Supreme Court in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission-trust in our government has reached an all-time low. More than ever before, Americans believe that money buys results in Congress, and that business interests wield control over our legislature.

With heartfelt urgency and a keen desire for righting wrongs, Harvard law professor Lawrence Lessig takes a clear-eyed look at how we arrived at this crisis: how fundamentally good people, with good intentions, have allowed our democracy to be co-opted by outside interests, and how this exploitation has become entrenched in the system. Rejecting simple labels and reductive logic-and instead using examples that resonate as powerfully on the Right as on the Left-Lessig seeks out the root causes of our situation. He plumbs the issues of campaign financing and corporate lobbying, revealing the human faces and follies that have allowed corruption to take such a foothold in our system. He puts the issues in terms that nonwonks can understand, using real-world analogies and real human stories. And ultimately he calls for widespread mobilization and a new Constitutional Convention, presenting achievable solutions for regaining control of our corrupted-but redeemable-representational system. In this way, Lessig plots a roadmap for returning our republic to its intended greatness.

While America may be divided, Lessig vividly champions the idea that we can succeed if we accept that corruption is our common enemy and that we must find a way to fight against it. In “Republic Lost,” he not only makes this need palpable and clear-he gives us the practical and intellectual tools to do something about it.” — Hachette Book Group