If you have not yet seen our exhibit on HLS student organizations, Spicy Reforms and Crystallizing Clap Trap, now is the time. Due to a January filming project in the Caspersen Room, the exhibit must close on Friday, December 21. A sneak peek is available here, but there’s so much more to see in person. Take a quick study break and visit the Caspersen Room, fourth floor of Langdell Hall, daily between 9 and 5 to see it all!
Right now, it is exam period at the law school, and the law library is filled to capacity with studying law students. During this time, with very limited exceptions, the law library is only open to current HLS affiliates and an HLS ID card must be shown to gain admission. For more information, inquire at the circulation desk. The telephone number is (617) 495-3455.
I recently gave a library tour to a group of conference attendees here at the law school. Like many visitors of this nature, they asked me about opportunities to come and research at the law library. So I thought I’d do a quick blog post about it, with links to the relevant websites that provide more information.
For general information about the law library’s admission policy, visit the Admission to the Library page on our website. This page includes a link to the form that anyone who is not a Harvard student or a member of the Harvard staff or faculty must fill out to be admitted to the library, including HLS alumni. The form requires you to indicate your affiliation information, and provides information about admission fees, if they are applicable to your situation.
If you have an academic affiliation, and are wondering whether you can access our library for research and how much, if anything, it would cost, this form will likely answer that question for you. However, if you would like more more information, you may send an email to email@example.com.
The HLS Graduate Program has a Visiting Scholar / Visiting Researcher Program, for which admission is competitive and which has admitted law professors and graduate students from all over the world to conduct research related to specified scholarly projects. Participants in this program are in residence at the law school, which provides them admission to the law library, for either a semester or an academic year.
Finally, in each of the last several years, the law library’s Library Innovation Lab has sponsored a summer fellows program, during which fellows work on their own projects and on other projects in collaboration with Lab members. The website does not have information yet about the 2019 summer fellows program, but stay tuned!
I have spent a lot of time this semester learning and using the Zotero citation management software, which provides researchers with a way to store and organize resources for scholarly writing projects. Our LLM students often ask us about Zotero, so I decided to learn it myself and offer a class in it. I gave this class several times, and discussed the following:
- Installing and Configuring Zotero on Your Computer
- Using Zotero with Harvard’s HOLLIS Library Catalog
- Using Zotero to Generate Citations for Your Paper
The last topic was, of course, of the most interest to our LLM students, since many of them are foreign-trained lawyers who are unfamiliar with (and do not really want to learn the fine details of) the Bluebook. While I get that, I also want them to realistically know what Zotero can and cannot do in terms of Bluebook-proper citation. Spoiler alert: it handles some types of sources well and some others not so well, and unless you know the Bluebook you won’t be able to fix the automatically-generated citations that are incorrect according to the Bluebook rules.
I have posted the slides for the Zotero class I gave this semester in my Zotero Training for LLM and SJD Students research guide. You are welcome to check them out if you are interested in learning more about how Zotero works, and the benefits it can provide when writing a work of legal scholarship. If you are affiliated with Harvard, and use your Harvard email address when you create your Zotero account, you will have free unlimited storage.
On a related note, I just wanted to put in a quick word about a new app that I discovered recently, PaperShip. You can install this app on your phone to get immediate access to the sources you have stored in your Zotero account.
This is so great! I was doing some research yesterday for an article that I am working on, found some articles that would be helpful, and saved them to Zotero. Through PaperShip, I was able to call up the PDF of one of those articles in about 2 seconds, and read it on the train during my commute to work this morning. When compared to scrolling through political fights on Twitter, what a superior (and less aggravating) use of that time!
The free version of PaperShip provides access to your sources only. There also appears to be an add-on, available for purchase, that you can use to highlight PDFs and make notes in them. These annotations, it is claimed, are then synced right back up to your Zotero account. I am going to test out this add-on and report back on it. But even add-on free PaperShip is a productivity-enhancing winner as far as I’m concerned, and I recommend it.
We completed the first phase of renovation in Langdell Hall. The library team vacated two floors of Areeda Hall (about 5,000 square feet), and are at the tail end of consolidating our collection from Lewis Hall into Langdell. As a result of these consolidations, we made some changes to the 2nd and 3rd floors of Langdell.
What is new?
Private Talking Spaces
In the elevator lobby on 3, we encourage you to use our private talking spaces. After testing a prototype last year, we learned that private talking spaces met a critical need of a private place to take and make calls. We encourage you to step inside and take that call from a potential employer, or check in with your family and friends.
Printers, scanners and database terminals
Opposite the Private Talking Spaces you will find a dedicated room for the library’s book scanners, database terminals, and printer/copier/scanners connected to Papercut.
Research assistance & educational technology
Ever have trouble finding a librarian or members of our TLC (educational technology) staff? They’ve moved to the 3rd floor. In our new Reference/TLC space, you can meet with our team of librarians and staff – experts in using technology for teaching and learning and in finding and using legal and non-legal information for academic and practice purposes. We encourage to meet with a librarian about your research needs and to hone your legal research skills in formal and informal workshops.
You will also find four large study rooms available for student use after 5pm. Our three group study rooms are available for reservation in the HLS room booking system. Our largest conference room, previously unavailable and located on the 5th floor of Areeda, now Langdell 394, is open after 5pm and offers another space to study or work collaboratively. This room cannot be reserved.
The 3rd floor also offers study carrels on 3N, tables and soft seating on 3S, and small tables for study or playing chess along the balcony.
We have revised our food policy to accommodate those who need sustenance, but don’t want to pull away from their work. Please enjoy a snack and drinks (in lidded containers) in the library. We still prohibit full meals (and odiferous foods) from the library. So head over to the Hark for breakfast, lunch or dinner. Taking a study break is necessary for effective learning.
But what about….
Study space? This summer’s renovation was the first phase, in response to space needs, of making improvements to the library. Next summer, we will launch a second renovation to improve the space on Langdell 2.
We hope to offer maximum flexibility to the space while providing a variety of types of spaces for study and learning. Over the last two years we’ve sought input from students on their ideal library – and we are using that feedback to inform our decisions. While we won’t make everyone 100% happy, we strive to provide maximum access to our space, our resources and our expert staff.
If you have any questions, comments, ideas, or concerns please let me know. You can reach me at firstname.lastname@example.org. Or swing by my office – Langdell 285. I welcome the opportunity to talk with you about space, learning, research, and how the library can be a partner in your success.
In Ruhleben Camp follows the production schedule of the magazine created by prisoners at Ruhleben, an internment camp for British civilians in Germany during WWI. This special post by Marissa Grunes marks the centenary of Armistice Day (November 11, 1918).
The Ruhleben Camp Magazine was largely quiet in the second half of the First World War—as this blog series has been! In honor of Armistice Day yesterday and Veteran’s Day today, though, I wanted to offer a special post about the unusual end to the Great War for those passive participants, the British civilian internees at Ruhleben Camp outside Berlin.
In some ways the drama of Armistice Day was muted within Ruhleben Camp. Many internees had already been released, and those who remained were still busily engaged in camp cultural activities, with the last of the camp’s 128 theater productions opening after Armistice Day, as Davidson Ketchum notes (Ketchum, p. 240). The robust civic organization within the camp had also rendered the last year of the war comparatively gentle to Ruhlebenites. Thanks to the work of the Quaker peace activist Elisabeth Rotten and the Friends Emergency Committee, Ruhleben had access to a steady stream of books and scientific instruments as well as support funds, as the historian Matthew Stibbe relates (Stibbe, p. 144-6), and although the Ruhleben Camp Magazine seems to have closed its editorial offices in the summer of 1917, the Ruhleben Camp School (jocularly called Ruhleben University) remained in full swing (Ketchum, p. 198; In Ruhleben, p. 226). Meanwhile, “standardised” parcel delivery service, various clubs, and the civic administration were also still active (Ketchum, pp. 8).
This bureaucratic organization was in some cases life-saving. When the Spanish flu struck Germany, leaving 187,000 German civilians and thousands of POWs dead, Ruhleben’s civilian camp authorities leaped into action, imposing quarantines and closing off parts of the camp, including the theatre and cinema. As a result, Ruhleben lost only two men (Stibbe, p. 151).
Ruhleben was also one of the few places in the region with sufficient food: after living behind the Allied blockade for nearly four years, Germans were dying of starvation, yet food parcels continued to arrive at Ruhleben (Stibbe, p. 70). The difference was so stark that in October 1918, the Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung carried a feature-length article claiming that a German businessman, one Herr Wittkowski, had asked the Ruhleben commandant to take his sons into the camp to be fed and receive an education (Stibbe, p. 149). One internee later recalled how he and his messmates, fearing that hungry Berliners might raid the camp, went so far as to bury a cache of food in what “was ostensibly a window-box…with emergency rations of canned beef, tripe, etc., and a few flowers planted on top.” He concludes gratefully, “We never needed it” (quoted in Stibbe, p. 153).
The upshot was that Armistice Day mattered less for the internees at Ruhleben Camp than did the chaos sweeping Germany. In early November 1918, German sailors in Kiel resisted orders to take to the seas for a final hopeless battle against the British. As the German imperial government crumbled, revolutionary sentiment spread, reaching Ruhleben on November 8, 1918, when the German guards followed the lead of their countrymen across Europe and deposed their officers. The guards then joined the prisoners in signing a “declaration of brotherhood” between the German and English people, and “hoisted the red flag before setting the prisoners free” (Stibbe, p. 16). The next day, the German republic was proclaimed by the socialist parliamentarian Philipp Scheidemann from the balcony of the Reichstag in Berlin: “That which is old and rotten, the monarchy has collapsed. Long live that which is new, long live the German republic!” Only a few hours later, a revolutionary admirer of Soviet Russia, Karl Liebknecht, walked up the stairs of the nearby imperial palace to instead proclaim a “free socialist German republic.”
This tension between the moderate and radical socialist revolutionaries cost Liebknecht his life weeks later and would persist throughout the years of Germany’s new Weimar Republic. Nevertheless, revolutionaries in 1918 hoped that socialism would inaugurate a new era in German history. Monarchism, it seemed, had torn the world apart, and socialism promised to heal it. Although this hope was short-lived, it glows from the declaration of peace and fraternity, signed by the inmates and guards at Ruhleben. I would like to conclude by reprinting the opening, as quoted by Matthew Stibbe:
“ENGLISHMEN! Brothers from over the Channel. It is tragic, deeply tragical, that a million dead on both sides were necessary in order to bring home to us that after all we are brothers, and members of the same race. Have Germans and British ever, until now, torn each other to pieces? From impressions gained in competent circles yesterday, it is our personal opinion that your release is only a matter of days. When you are at home again, let it be your task to make known that the German people, in spite of all its victories, still retained sufficient strength to take its destiny into its own hands and this time to keep it there. Let your aim be to make known that the German people, in this, its time of greatest need, which is also the proudest period of its history, instinctively casts its eyes across the water, looking for help.” (p. 155)*
* Jamie McSpadden kindly contributed his substantial expertise on modern German history to this post. Jamie is a Visiting Postdoctoral Fellow at the German Historical Institute in Washington, DC.
Bibliography & Further Reading
Ketchum, J. Davidson. Ruhleben: A Prison Camp Society. With a Foreword and Postscript by Robert B. MacLeod. Canada: University of Toronto Press, 1965. Foreword (Ithaca, NY, April 1964)
In Ruhleben: Letters from a Prisoner to His Mother. Edited and with an introduction by Douglas Sladen. Including “Civilian Prisoners: the Case for a Wholesale Exchange” by Sir Timothy Eden. London: Hurst and Blackett, Ltd. Paternoster House, E.C., 1917.
Stibbe, Matthew. British civilian internees in Germany. The Ruhleben camp, 1914-18. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 2008.
Marissa Grunes is a PhD candidate in English Literature at Harvard University, focusing on transatlantic literature of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Her dissertation project explores frontier architecture in 19th century poetry, fiction, and non-fiction of the United States.
The Harvard Law School Library staff invite you to attend a book talk and discussion in celebration of the recent publication of the Twentieth Anniversary Edition of Sanford Levinson’s Written in Stone: Public Monuments in Changing Societies (Duke Univ. Press, Oct. 5, 2018). Sanford Levinson is the W. St. John Garwood and W. St. John Garwood, Jr., Centennial Chair in Law at the University of Texas Law School and Visiting Professor of Law at Harvard Law School. Professor Levinson will be joined in discussion by Boston Globe Columnist Jeff Jacoby; Randall L. Kennedy, Michael R. Klein Professor of Law at Harvard Law School; and Bruce Mann, Carl F. Schipper, Jr. Professor of Law at Harvard Law School.
Wednesday, November 14, 2018, at noon
Harvard Law School WCC Milstein West B (Directions)
1585 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA
No RSVP required
About Written in Stone: Public Monuments in Changing Societies
“From the removal of Confederate monuments in New Orleans in the spring of 2017 to the violent aftermath of the white nationalist march on the Robert E. Lee monument in Charlottesville later that summer, debates and conflicts over the memorialization of Confederate “heroes” have stormed to the forefront of popular American political and cultural discourse. In Written in Stone Sanford Levinson considers the tangled responses to controversial monuments and commemorations while examining how those with political power configure public spaces in ways that shape public memory and politics. Paying particular attention to the American South, though drawing examples as well from elsewhere in the United States and throughout the world, Levinson shows how the social and legal arguments regarding the display, construction, modification, and destruction of public monuments mark the seemingly endless confrontation over the symbolism attached to public space.
This twentieth anniversary edition of Written in Stone includes a new preface and an extensive afterword that takes account of recent events in cities, schools and universities, and public spaces throughout the United States and elsewhere. Twenty years on, Levinson’s work is more timely and relevant than ever.” — Duke University Press
More About Written in Stone: Public Monuments in Changing Societies
“Sanford Levinson has written a wonderfully wise and informed essay on the issue of how we commemorate the past when the past keeps on changing.” — Nathan Glazer, author of, We Are All Multiculturalists Now
“Much has been written about the controversy over public presentations of history, but rarely has the question of how to memorialize our past received the thoughtful, incisive, and fair-minded analysis provided by Sanford Levinson.” — Eric Foner, author of, The Story of American Freedom
Sanford Levinson, W. St. John Garwood and W. St. John Garwood, Jr., Centennial Chair in Law at the University of Texas Law School and Visiting Professor of Law at Harvard Law School
Boston Globe Columnist Jeff Jacoby
Randall L. Kennedy, Michael R. Klein Professor of Law at Harvard Law School
Bruce Mann, Carl F. Schipper, Jr. Professor of Law at Harvard Law School.
Scanning Nuremberg: IMT prosecution documents on persecution of the Jews, Germanization, and NSDAP Leadership Corps
Post by Matt Seccombe, November 3, 2018
During October I covered the IMT prosecution documents on the persecution of the Jews (a phrase that the prosecutors noted was far short of the reality), Germanization, and the first material on the Leadership Corps of the NSDAP [National Socialist German Workers Party], amounting to 157 documents and 663 pages of material. The prosecution detoured from counts 3 and 4 (war crimes and crimes against humanity) to the criminal organizations without any explanation, and will detour back to the plundering of artworks before moving on to the next organization (the Cabinet). For the IMT generally, we now have just over 1200 documents analyzed.
Documentary surpluses and deficits: When the Nuremberg trials staff sorted out the sets of documents for distribution, the folders on the Leadership Corps sent to HLS included a bonus: an extra copy of the trial indictment and an extra copy of the brief on the Corps. What HLS did not receive was a copy of the first document book on the Corps (the other document books are present). All things considered, I would have traded in the duplicates for that document book.
The extermination of the Jews: While official secrecy was maintained, within the regime the extermination of the Jews became explicit policy quickly, both as a military measure and as an end in itself. In Poland Hans Frank was concise: “We must annihilate the Jews.” By June 1943, one report noted that the “special treatment” of the Jews “requires no further discussion,” but some of the tactics were shocking to some people in the regime, such as the removal of dental gold from Jewish prisoners. Also, locking suspected partisan families inside barns and burning them alive “is not worthy of the German cause and hurts our reputation severely.” One paradoxical point in the report was that the atrocities were so extreme that if news of them got out, people “simply would not be ready to believe it.” Finally, in August 1944, Adolf Eichmann matter-of-factly summed up what the SS had done in a talk with a colleague, who recorded it in an affidavit: Four million Jews in the death camps, two million by the einsatzgruppen and similar actions; six million dead.
Germanization: This program had two sides, one to render the occupied territories useful to Germany and the second to gather in all Europeans of “Germanic blood” to the homeland. Frank stated the first task regarding Poland: “Poland shall be treated as a colony, the Poles shall be the slaves of the Greater German World Empire.” Himmler summed up the latter task in 1940: “to create an order of good blood.”
Hitler’s feast: The prize possession of the empire, of course, was to be the Soviet territory. In July 1941 Hitler assumed the military conquest would be swift, and he outlined for his generals a plan to dominate, administer, and exploit the resources, natural and human. What remained, he said, was “the task of cutting up the giant cake according to our needs.”
The HLS Library holds approximately one million pages of documents relating to the trial of military and political leaders of Nazi Germany before the International Military Tribunal (IMT) and to the twelve trials of other accused war criminals before the United States Nuremberg Military Tribunals (NMT). We have posted five trials so far (NMT 1 through NMT 4 and NMT 7) and have completed digitization of all the documents and transcripts.
We are now engaged in the process of analyzing, describing and making machine readable the remaining trials’ materials in preparation for posting them to the Web. We hope to complete this work as soon as possible based upon available funding. For more information about this project, please contact Jocelyn Kennedy.
The HLS Library recently published a new online research guide, Researching Women’s Housing and Shelter Rights.
According to the United Nations, housing and human rights are related due to “the significance of a secure place to live for human dignity, physical and mental health, and overall quality of life(.)” Accordingly, “the right to adequate housing joined the body of international, universally applicable, and universally accepted human rights law” when the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was adopted in 1948. See, in particular, Article 25 of the UDHR:
Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services(.)
Housing is also a protected right under Article 14 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), as well as several other international human rights treaties and conventions.
It is understood that the right to housing is comprised of multiple separate rights, including but not limited to (1) the right to shelter, (2) the right to affordable housing, (3) the right to habitable housing, and (4) the right to security of tenure.
The HLS Library’s new research guide on this topic includes a directory of organizations engaged in housing research and advocacy in the U.S. and Europe, such as the National Coalition for the Homeless and FEANTSA.
The guide also provides as a number of pre-populated searches of Harvard’s HOLLIS library catalog, using relevant Library of Congress Subject Heading (LCSH) keywords.
Finally, the guide includes a list of recently-published cross-disciplinary books and scholarly articles that discuss demographic and situational factors that are relevant to women’s housing and shelter rights, including:
- Housing instability of:
- Poor women
- Single mothers
- Women of Color
- Gay women
- Transgender women
- Nonbinary/gender nonconforming people
- Older women
- Disabled women
- Women who have significant health challenges (including drug abuse, cancer, and mental illness)
- Pregnant women
- Female victims of intimate partner violence
- Women with prior evictions
- Female veterans
- Female sex workers
- Women who have been in prison
- Difficulties experienced by poor women in acquiring government housing benefits
- The impact of the subprime mortgage crisis on women’s housing stability and wealth accumulation
The guide is freely available online. Check it out at https://guides.library.harvard.edu/womens_housing_rights.
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) has really become a global phenomenon. The HLS Library has acquired several new titles recently that focus on the practice of ADR (including arbitration, mediation, negotiation, and more) in various jurisdictions around the world.
Below is a list of selected recent English-language titles that may be of interest to comparative ADR researchers, organized alphabetically by geographic area or jurisdiction.
Conflict Resolution in Asia: Mediation and Other Cultural Models
Stephanie P. Stobbe (ed.)
Lexington Books, 2018
International Arbitration Discourse and Practices in Asia
Vijay K. Bhatia et al. (eds.)
Australian Dispute Resolution: Law and Practice
Laurence Boulle and Rachael Field
LexisNexis Butterworths, 2017
Domesticating Democracy: The Politics of Conflict Resolution in Bolivia
Susan Helen Ellison
Duke University Press, 2018
The Law of ADR in Canada: An Introductory Guide (2nd ed.)
LexisNexis Canada, 2018
Mediation in Contemporary China: Continuity and Change
FU Hualing and Michael Palmer (eds.)
Wildy, Simmonds & Hill Publishing, 2017
The Challenge of Legal Pluralism: Local Dispute Settlement and the Indian-State Relationship in Ecuador
Marc Simon Thomas
The Three Paths of Justice: Court Proceedings, Arbitration, and Mediation in England (2nd ed.)
EU Mediation Law Handbook
Nadja Alexander et al. (eds.)
Wolters Kluwer, 2017
The European Union and International Dispute Settlement
Marise Cremona et al. (eds.)
Hart Publishing, 2017
Alternative Dispute Resolution of Shareholder Disputes in Hong Kong: Institutionalizing its Effective Use
Ida Kwan Lun Mak
Cambridge University Press (2017)
Alternative Dispute Resolution: The Indian Perspective
Shashank Garg (ed.)
Oxford University Press, 2018
Alternative Dispute Resolution & Arbitration in Nigeria: Law, Theory, and Practice
Abdulsalam O. Ajetunmobi
Princeton & Associates Publishing Co. Ltd., 2017
Resolving Environmental Disputes in Pakistan: The Role of Judicial Commissions
Pakistan Law House, 2018
Nordic Mediation Research (Scandinavia)
Anna Nylund et al. (eds.)
Available as an open-access eBook at https://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319730189.
A graduation requirement for each Harvard Law School LLM student is to research and write a paper on a legal topic, of at least 25 pages (short paper) or at least 50 pages (long paper) in length, under the supervision of an HLS faculty member.
Our LLM students are currently deep in the process of finding faculty supervisors and preparing their LLM paper proposals, which are due October 22.
The HLS Graduate Program has created LLM paper writing groups, organized by topic and led by experienced and knowledgeable SJD students, to provide the LLMs with a supportive and encouraging workshop-like environment for the process of completing this rigorous academic requirement.
Each LLM paper writing group has an assigned research librarian. I have been assigned to help out three groups this year:
(1) Constitutional & Administrative Law (generally known as “public law” and also includes people writing about legal theory and philosophy)
(2) Private Law (includes contractual obligations, legal remedies, law and technology, and health law/bioethics)
(3) Trade and Private International Law (includes international investment law, international trade law, antitrust, and arbitration)
This year, I decided to create extensive research guides for each of my groups. These guides include pre-populated searches of Harvard’s HOLLIS library catalog, using specialized subject terms. They also include information about using the HLS Library’s subscription databases for law journal research.
The good news is that these research guides are freely available online and can be used by anyone! Feel free to check them out and let me know what you think:
- Research Guide: Constitutional & Administrative Law LLM Long Paper Writing Group
- Research Guide: Private Law LLM Long Paper Writing Group
- Research Guide: Trade and Private International Law LLM Long Paper Writing Group
I also completely overhauled our International Arbitration Research Guide this fall. Several members of the Trade and Private International Law Group have found to be especially helpful. It includes information about the many arbitration-related databases to which the HLS Library subscribes.
Did you know that the HLS Library has published more than 150 research guides? You can access them online at https://guides.library.harvard.edu/law.